The Horizontal Levee

Restoring San Francisco Bay’s tidal marshes is one of the best and most inexpensive ways to protect valuable shoreline development from sea level rise during the next several decades. By using tidal marshes in combination with earthen levees construction and maintenance costs can be reduced by almost 50%.

The Horizontal Levee, The Bay Institute’s groundbreaking study about the economic value of tidal marshes, demonstrates conclusively that nature performs critical functions for society. During the current era of sea level rise, the forgotten marshlands of San Francisco Bay have become a critical adaptation tool.
 

Study Overview
The Horizontal Levee
The Bay Institute, February 22, 2013

Full Report
Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Using Tidal Marsh Restoration as a Sea Level Rise Adaptation Strategy in San Francisco Bay
The Bay Institute, February 22, 2013

Related Links:
Bay Area Environmental Group Proposes Hybrid Levees for Bay
San Jose Mercury News, February 24, 2013.

Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington: Past, Present, and Future

National Academy of Sciences
Report | Video

Going with the Flow - The Netherlands has held back the sea for centuries; now it is letting it in, as the Dutch realize they are facing a losing battle.
New York Times